Study Set 11
Skill in Human Relations
Recommended Additional Reading
Letter from Teaching Staff
How Certain Ashrams are Preparing to Take Outer
Further Views of Certain Ashrams
Glossary of Terms
The task of the NEW GROUP OF WORLD SERVERS is not
the spreading of esoteric or occult information.
The work of the New Group is to hasten and facilitate
the entry of new ideals and new aims into the public mind: to promote world
understanding, international good will and religious amity, thus preparing
the climate of public opinion for the Coming One.
A Treatise on White Magic, pages 322-374
Recommended Additional Reading (optional):
MARKINGS, Dag Hammarskjold
JOURNAL OF A SOUL, Pope John
QUESTIONS AND ISSUES FOR STUDY, REFLECTION,
Please answer the following questions out of your
own thinking, rather than searching through the book or study set for quotable
answers. You are urged to give considerable attention to this aspect of
the subjective work. The more time, the more thought you give to it, the
more spiritual help you will receive through your studies. These are quite
searching questions. If you wish, try to formulate written answers to these
questions. The effort you give to expressing your thinking about them is
in itself a method of calling into activity hitherto unused parts of your
1.) What relation do you see between esoteric training
(occult study) and the New Group of World Servers? (See seed thought.)
2.) Please turn to (f) and read the biographical
vignettes. Consider each in turn and decide whether the person depicted
qualifies as a world server. Then answer the following questions, keeping
in mind that there is no right or wrong answer. Putting your opinion on
paper will help to clarify your concept, your mental picture, of a member
of the New Group of World Servers.
3.) (a) Try to imagine how the Hierarchy
would rate these people according to Their standards for the New Group
of World Servers. In the case of each person, is he or is he not a Server?
(b) Why do you think so?
Dear Fellow Server:
We hear often, in this line of study, the terms "mystic"
and "occultist". Not so often are these words defined by those who teach,
nor are they understood by those who study. And yet, each term is an important
one with its own clear definition, and each refers to a particular approach
to spiritual being.
A mystic is one who loves God, who experiences God
as love in such a way that his life is colored or completely changed by
the experience. Mysticism is a movement of the heart toward God the Beloved,
with a passionate intention toward union with the Object of this love.
The aims are wholly transcendental and spiritual and are not concerned
with exploring or rearranging or improving anything in the visible universe.
The mystic cannot imagine anything higher than the union toward which he
strives, this giving of himself to God, asking nothing in return. For the
great mystics of the middle ages, to inquire of God, to ask anything
of God was sinful. The love of God might be entered into if one disciplined
oneself rigorously and long; to try to know God with the mind as well as
with the heart was to commit the sin of being spiritually "nosey," of prying
into God's affairs.
We have all been mystics at some time in the past;
many of us are still mystics, but we are mystics who question. We are glad
to have found the love of God, to know that it is there even when we are
not able, at times, to contact it. But we have begun to know that what
we call God yields to us true answers when we ask clear questions. When
we begin to question, to stand back critically and analytically from what
we have always accepted as true, we are beginning to use our minds. It
is true that the mind has a separative aspect, and many mystics object
to thinking about things spiritual because such activity makes them
feel apart from God. But the one who questions, criticizes, and analyzes,
while apparently separating himself from God, is learning and growing.
His mind, a vital part of his triple form, in its insistence upon clear
answers, in its effort to encompass these answers with mental appreciation,
is becoming larger and brighter. The mystic who begins to think is in process
of becoming the occultist.
The thinking mind pushes the man on the physical
plane in a different direction than does the feeling heart. The mystic
abstracts himself from the world in his inward search for God; he performs
what might be called an inbreathing action. The occultist, who searches
for answers so that he may put them to use, whose approach to God is mental
rather than romantic, is a practical individual who, while he may love
God, is more intent on serving humanity. He is taking what he gained as
a mystic, in lives gone by, and putting it into action in the three worlds
-- he is outbreathing it. Once again we can see an example of the
circulatory activity of life of which we have spoken in earlier study sets.
Abstraction or inbreathing must inevitably become expression
Sometimes the mystic, the lover of God, and the occultist,
the knower of God, are equally present in the same individual. When this
is a fact we have a man whose heart and head balance each other, and, for
him, truly wise living is possible. Such a man might be a priest or a king,
a teacher or a servant, a financier or a musician, but in whatever realm
he lives, his life will show a notable symmetry.
Appearing throughout history, such workers for God,
such servers of humanity, excite our deepest admiration. We might point
to Florence Nightingale, whose compassionate heart and practical head led
her into the Crimea to try to alleviate the sufferings of wounded soldiers,
regardless of the criticism of her countrymen and her family's concern
for her personal happiness. Her complete self-sacrifice and her common-sensical
methods of handling the appalling problems she met there are clear indications
of her symmetrical being.
Winston Churchill is another whose broad development
of both heart and head was impressive. Dag Hammarskjold and Pope John XXIII
are two others. Pope John might be presumed to be more mystic than occultist
until one examines the practical rules he set for himself in dealing with
people and circumstances. Indeed, as one studies the life of this man it
becomes increasingly difficult to say where the lover of God left off and
the server of humanity began.
Dag Hammarskjold, in his work as Secretary General
of the United Nations was a tireless, eminently intelligent, and firm leader,
who was believed by those who knew him to be a cold and detached individual
with very little heart quality. Readers of his posthumously published journal,
MARKINGS, learned that he was in fact a sensitive and spiritually oriented
man with deep reverence for a Presence to Which he gave no name. The heart
quality was indeed there, giving him a depth and leadership ability he
would not have had otherwise.
There seems to be today a plethora of self-seeking,
self-serving little people with, alas, ourselves oftentimes in the midst
of this motley crowd. But when we remember to raise our eyes higher and
see further, we can always find these larger-than-life-size human beings
whose influence is broad, whose hearts are inclusive, and whose minds are
absorbed in their tasks of serving mankind in the truest sense. Take heart,
for the presence of such people is an indication of what we can be someday.
They, like the Christ, are the Great Example, not the Great Exception.
In the fellowship of spiritual growth, we are your
good and steady friends,
The Staff of Arcana
HOW CERTAIN ASHRAMS ARE PREPARING TO TAKE
Prefacing note by Teaching Staff:
An Ashram is made up of disciples and initiates of
various degrees who are both receptive and responsive to the energy and
the guiding influence of the Master of the Wisdom who is the head of the
Ashram. Not only do the workers within a single Ashram cooperate with and
strengthen each other, but Ashrams work with and are linked with other
Ashrams. This chain of graded workers and interlinked groups of workers
is what is meant by the "Chain of Hierarchy." At any point of the chain,
from the head of an Ashram to the disciple who labors among the masses,
a worker qualifies for his particular task by being sensitive, receptive,
and responsive to ashramic intent and ashramic energy.
The work to be done is selected with clarity
and sureness within the Ashram. The method of working is selected
by the disciple or serving group, usually through experiment, uncertainty,
trial and error. The worker selects himself. A particular disciple
is not assigned nor appointed to a specific task. Rather, the one who dedicates
himself to a specific ashramic task is drawn to that task by his responsiveness
to ashramic intent and his own sensitivity to immediate world need. He
accurately senses a detail of the Plan and commits himself to working out
that detail into appropriate form.
The serving disciple works in the outer world as
a spiritual volunteer.
The five Masters concerned with the initial stages
of the Organisation of the Hierarchy on earth are the Master K. H., the
Master Morya, the Master R., the English Master and Master D. K., also
know as the Tibetan. On the physical plane, the initiates and disciples
working in the first ray Ashram of the Master Morya are primarily occupied
in the world of politics and government, seeking to preserve individual
and national cultures and to subordinate them to the good of the whole
The reappearance of the Christ is the major preoccupation
of the second ray Ashram of the Master K. H., and its mission is to produce
energy which will make possible and definite that reappearance. This ashram
will be one of the last to manifest objectively on the physical plane.
The Master R. is the Lord of Civilisation, and His
is the task of bringing in the new civilisation for which all men wait.
His ashram enfolds within its ring-pass-not all the ashrams to be found
upon the third ray of Active Intelligence, upon the fifth ray of Concrete
Science and upon the seventh ray of Ceremonial Order. He Himself, at this
time, works with seventh ray energy, which is the order-producing energy
upon our planet. Through the activity of this energy, when correctly directed
and used, a right rhythm is being imposed upon all aspects of human living.
An effort is being constantly made to arrest the chaos of the present and
to produce the ordered beauty of the future.
The English Master (Who has always withheld His name
from public knowledge) cooperates with the Master R. upon the ray of Active
Intelligence. He started the preparatory work nearly one hundred years
ago during the industrial revolution in England, through the labour movement,
which was one of the most successful attempts in all history to awaken
the masses of men to general betterment. This set up a momentum which could,
occultly speaking, swing them into light. Along with the development of
the labour movement mass education came into being, with the result that
-- from the angle of intelligence -- the entire level of conscious awareness
was universally raised.
This is an outstanding example of how the Masters
work, for the labour movement arose from within the working classes; it
was a spontaneous development, based upon the thinking and teaching of
a few men who were regarded as agitators and trouble-makers. In reality,
they were a group of disciples who were cooperating with the Law of Evolution
and with the Hierarchical Plan. They were not particularly advanced disciples,
but they were affiliated with some Ashram and they were therefore subject
to impression. If they had been advanced disciples or initiates, their
work would have been futile, for their presentation of the Plan would not
have been adapted to the level of the intelligence of the uneducated masses
composing labour at that time.
The English Master's Ashram is occupied with the
problems of industry. The work is directed towards spiritualising the concepts
of the labour party and of the industrialists, and turning them toward
the goal of right sharing, as a major step towards right human relations.
All the great labour organisations, nationally and internationally, are
loosely knit together subjectively, because in each group this Master has
his disciples who are working constantly to hold the movement in line with
the divine Plan.
It is well to bear in mind that all great movements
on earth demonstrate both good and evil, the evil has to be subdued and
relegated to its right proportional place, before the good which is in
line with hierarchical planning can find true expression. It is this process
which is going on now, and which is being fought by the selfish and ambitious
elements. Nevertheless a right sense of values is being developed, and
the foundation of the new civilisation lies in the right direction of the
labour group in every land.
This Ashram is occupied with worldwide economic problems,
the significance of money, the value of gold, right attitudes towards material
living, and the entire process of right distribution. The work is enormous
and of great importance in preparing men's minds for the return of the
Christ and for the New Age which He will inaugurate. Capitalists and labour
leaders, financial experts and thinking workers, and members of all the
different ideologies in the world today are to be found working in this
Ashram. All of them are deeply spiritual, in the correct sense, but they
care not for labels, for schools of thought, for academic or esoteric teaching.
They exemplify a livingness which is the hallmark of discipleship; of right
motive, intelligence and selfless service.
It is the third ray energy, as wielded in the Ashram
of this Master, which will bring about a balance between the material values
and the spiritual, and "seal the door where evil dwells." The door must
be sealed by a vast mass of coordinated human forces and not by a few enlightened
men. Then the energy of Love-Wisdom can and will bring in the Kingdom of
God; the energy of the Divine Will can and will galvanise with its dynamic
potency the entire human family to the point where a group transition will
take place from the fourth into the fifth kingdom.
The second ray Master, D. K., is working under the
direction of the three great Lords of the Hierarchy, with the energy of
right human relations. It is a magnetic type of energy and draws men together
for betterment and for right understanding. In this particular cycle His
Ashram is in a key position through the work of the Men of Goodwill, and
through all the goodwill movements in the world today.
Goodwill is essentially an expression of the second
ray of Love-Wisdom and is therefore an aspect of all the Ashrams of the
Hierarchy. All goodwill work is today being galvanised into violent activity
through the dynamic energy of the first ray, expressing the Will-to-Good.
This dynamic type of energy is channeled through the Ashram of the Master
D. K., and works also in close cooperation with the Ashram of the Master
R., because the intelligent activity of the energy of Goodwill is our objective.
Basic changes in world affairs will take place when the labour movement
is swept by the energy of goodwill.
You will note how the three divine aspects are united
in one great movement, working through the Ashrams of five Masters, to
bring in the Kingdom of God, and the first step towards this is the appearance
of Masters upon the physical plane. One thing which humanity needs today,
is the realisation that there IS a PLAN which is working out through all
world happenings. This presupposes Those Who are responsible for the originating
of the Plan and for carrying it forward successfully.
To the spiritual Hierarchy the Plan involves those
arrangements of circumstances which will raise and expand human consciousness,
and enable men to discover the spiritual values for themselves, and to
make the needed changes of their own free will. Nothing of true value is
gained by any arbitrary or autocratic activity on the part of the Hierarchy.
The Masters lead Humanity, through right understanding, to take the needed
action itself, even if it involves trial and error and a much slower process.
EXTERNALISATION OF THE HIERARCHY Summary
of pages 660-670
FURTHER VIEWS OF CERTAIN ASHRAMS
Of the seven major Ashrams, only a few have disciples
and initiates at work at this time on the externalisation of the Hierarchy.
The first ray Ashram of Morya and the second ray Ashram of
K. H., together the most powerful in the Hierarchy, control the building
forces. The Ashram of a fifth ray Master is the custodian of science
and of that which relates and brings into expression the duality of spirit-matter.
It is through the scientific use of energy that the world will be rebuilt
and the factual nature of the Hierarchy be proven. Through the pressure
of education (second ray energy), through the growth of the concept of
synthesis (first ray), and through the correct use of energy (fifth ray),
this world can be brought into a condition of preparedness for the externalisation
of the Hierarchy.
Disciples from the second ray Ashram of K.
H. will direct their efforts toward the general public, working primarily
through educators in all countries and through those concerned with the
teaching of religion. The task will be slow, but second ray disciples are
endowed with steady persistence which brooks no discouragement. Such disciples
will be found in institutions of higher learning and in churches, and will
exert pressure against old methods, ancient theologies and selfish and
competitive techniques. The science of co-operation, and of right human
relations and of correct adjustments to life through meditation and right
vision, will supercede the present methods of learning, all of which will
not damage the acquisition of academic knowledge or the right apprehension
of spiritual truth.
The disciples of the Master Morya's first ray
Ashram will be found in the field of right human relations and in the production
of that synthesis of effort which will create a new intuitional consciousness,
a changing political consciousness and a situation in which the family
of nations will stand together for certain basic values. These are:
1. The four essential freedoms of the individual:
Freedom of speech
Freedom of worship
Freedom from want
Freedom from fear
2. Right international interplay necessitating abolishing
3. Clean political regimes.
These disciples will work closely with disciples
on the second ray.
Disciples of the fifth ray Ashram will have
the task of leading mankind into the benefits the atomic age. Occultists
have taught that there is nothing in existence but energy in some form
or other, and that all that we can know or work with is energy in relation
to forces, or forces as they are directed by energy. The fifth ray disciples
will prove this and by their efforts the new civilization will be built.
Their work will include the discoveries of science, the adaptation of the
laws governing matter, and the directing of dense energy to the service
and the growing needs of mankind, as well as observing and probing into
the subtle and delicate apparatus of the human body and making their findings
available to the healing profession. Humanity will have time for freedom,
for the deeper educational considerations, and for a political activity
of the spiritual kind; labor as we know it will be abolished and every
phase of man's life will be implemented by science; man will be free to
think and to unfold the higher abstract mind, and to interpret its conclusions
through the medium of the trained lower concrete mind.
The work of the three major Ashrams will be largely
educational and when it is done the other Ashrams will slowly send in their
workers to continue with the task. The first will be on the third ray.
The world will be ready for an all-over financial adjustment; the principle
of sharing will be the recognised motivating concept of the new civilisation.
Public opinion will be such that certain fundamental ideals will motivate
business; the fact that the new general ideas will in many cases be governed
by the expediency of interplay will not matter. The sharing is important.
When the entering third ray disciples appear they will find:
1. That the principle of barter and exchange to the
benefit of all will control.
2. That owing to the development of atomic energy
on behalf of human welfare, national currencies will have been largely
superseded by a universal monetary exchange.
3. Private enterprise will be regulated; public utilities,
the major material resources and sources of planetary wealth will be owned
by a governing international group.
The third ray disciples will build a new structure
of material relationships.
One major characteristic is, however, present in
all these working disciples and aspirants; this is a wide humanitarianism
and a determination to aid in the cause of human welfare. One interesting
distinction will later emerge and condition the new age in contradistinction
to past and present methods. Future servers will not be dedicated to purely
humanitarian and welfare work nor to the relief of human necessity. All
phases of human living -- politics, finance and science as well as religion
-- will be recognised to be their immediate task. A growing spirit of humanitarianism
is foundational to the new world order which will emerge out of all these
experiments which human thinking is at this time evolving. While in incarnation
disciples and aspirants who serve humanity may be quite unconscious of
any spiritual objective except the recognition that they love their fellowman;
this love will condition all they do and will motivate their every effort.
Summary of points covered in: Externalisation
Seven Rays V. 380-387
BIOGRAPHICAL VIGNETTE # 1: LEO SZILARD
Dr. Leo Szilard, the brilliant nuclear physicist,
died in the spring of 1964 in La Jolla California. He was 66 years old
and in the midst of a new career as a biologist. In the New York Memorial
Hospital in 1960 he had undergone treatment for cancer and in spite of
believing his case to be terminal, refused to concern himself unduly. Szilard
was willing to talk to an interviewer quite freely about his affliction.
"As a rational scientist, I have never believed in evading reality. So
my death is approaching. Well -- isn't everybody's? He smiled wryly. "I
have cancer of the bladder," he said explicitly. "It is incurable. I have
undergone intensive radiation treatments and the tumor appears to have
vanished. But statistics are all in favor of a fairly rapid recurrence."
Asked if there was any hope at all he replied, "I
have always believed, in assessing mankind's chances in the nuclear age,
that however bleak the prospect may be, there is always a narrow margin
of hope, and man must concentrate on that narrow margin. That is the way
I must look at my own prospects. There is always hope. But, realistically,
my chances are anything but good. Say six months to a year. I have plenty
to occupy me in whatever time is left."
Besides carrying on a large correspondence, he was
writing manuscripts, scientific papers, and was working on a philosophical
tract disguised as science fiction called THE VOICE OF THE DOLPHINS. Szilard's
passion for the politics of peace and disarmament rivaled his passion for
science itself. He was always writing articles, engaging in debates, lobbying
for or against bills in Congress, attending international meetings, making
his views known in any way he could. He was said to be one of the great
and good human beings of our time, but he was shy in his personal relationships.
He was an idealist who was embarrassed to admit how deeply he cared about
His name was not attached to any revolutionary theory
or any specific discovery; indeed, much of his celebrated mental power
had gone into catalyzing the work of other men. Getting credit for an idea
seemed the farthest thing from his mind. Although he never won a Nobel
Prize in spite of having a number of Nobel Prize-winning ideas, he was
not bitter about this. Szilard was asked if it was true that he had thought
of the cyclotron two years before Ernest 0. Lawrence did.
"Yes.," he said. "But Lawrence thought of the cyclotron
independently, and he built one. He deserved the Nobel Prize."
Against all odds and expectations, his cancer never
recurred. It was a heart attack that took him in his sleep.
Condensed from Special Report, LIFE Magazine
VIGNETTE # 2: MURAGAPA MODI
Among the most remarkable men in the medical world
today is the Indian ophthalmologist, Dr. Muragapa Chenavirapa Modi. This
forty-one year old man keeps a mobile hospital unit rolling all the year
around through the states of Mysore, Andhra, Madras, and Bombay -- an area
covering about three hundred thousand square miles and containing upward
of a hundred and fifty million people -- and his surgical skill is so celebrated
that the prodigious number of eye operations he performs daily is reported
in the papers in India much as baseball batting averages are reported in
the papers here.
Dr. Modi, who got his medical degree from Bombay
University in 1940, started his unique traveling practice in 1943, and
has since examined some two million patients and performed some seventy
thousand eye operations, mostly for cataracts. Hard as it is to believe,
he is able, by dint of split-second scheduling, to perform between forty
and fifty cataract operations an hour; his record for a single day is five
hundred and ten cataracts removed within nine hours. He makes no charge
for his work, which is paid for by the governments of the four states and
by donations from various philanthropic organizations.
Dr. Modi is an honorary member of the Lion's Club
and the Rotary Club in India, and greatly enjoys traveling because, he
says, the world is a university and to tour it is an education. At present
he travels widely, and, in his own country, he does curative work, providing
those who need them with glasses frames sent from other countries, and
distributing white canes to the blind. In two or three years he plans to
found a medical center in Davangere, which is right in the middle of South
India,where he can do research and give post graduate courses to younger
When he was asked why he didn't stay in one place
and let his patients come to him he replied, "I had a private hospital
in Bombay, and when I would inquire of my country patients how they met
the expense of transportation to Bombay, they would say, 'I sold my house'
or 'I had a cow and I sold it for bus fare.' I saw that I would have to
go to them to keep them from selling everything they had."
There are, according to Dr. Modi, two million totally
blind people in India and six million partially blind ones, most of them
impoverished villagers. He and fifteen assistants travel constantly from
village to village, trucking their equipment for examining patients and
operating on them, plus a generator because there is rarely any electricity
in these places.
"Cataracts are very common in India, as they are
in all tropical countries; the ultraviolet rays of the sun are harmful
to the lenses of our eyes." Dr. Modi said. "In May, I conducted an eye
operation camp at Anantapur; I gave eighteen thousand consultations and
performed seven hundred and eighty-seven operations, of which six hundred
and ninety-six were for cataracts. Our little temporary hospitals must
get results as your motor factories get results, by mass production."
Dr. Modi smiled. "I have, always wanted to be useful,"
he said. "I am not interested in religion; it is a walking stick, and once
you have learned to walk, you have no need for a stick. Service to the
suffering human body, which is the temple of God, is the best form of worshipping
God. I take much pleasure in this service. I have a wife and son, who live
in Dharwar, with my wife's father. It would be too hard on them to travel
constantly from village to village, as I do. One can truly say that they,
too, are making a sacrifice."
Condensed from THE NEW YORKER
July 27, 1959
VIGNETTE # 3: THOMAS A. DOOLEY
Thomas Anthony Dooley, born January 17, 1927, died
January 18, 1961, was, from the beginning of his life, an individual full
of self-confidence and the will to lead. He felt that he must be first,
be best at anything he tackled. He was an intelligent, intense person who
was described by his family as "all-out," with no half-way measures.
He loved music for which he had a gift, and languages,
especially French, which was to serve him well in the last years of his
life. He was a better than average musician, perhaps because of the intensity
of his love for music, but he chose, very early in his life, to make medicine
his career. Music, he said satisfied him, but medicine was a means of giving
himself away to others. In 1948 he visited Lourdes which both repelled
and fascinated him. It was his first experience with what Schweitzer called
"the Fellowship of Pain." He knelt in meditation while there and wrote
that the beauty of Lourdes was apparent while one was looking up, but one
must look down, too.
In April, 1953, after receiving his M.D. from St.
Louis University, he was appointed Lieutenant j.g., Medical Corps by the
U.S. Navy. Later the same year he was ordered to Japan and the purpose
of his life began to come into view. While in Japan he became deeply interested
in the oriental mind, customs, and religions in an inclusive way without
compromising his own faith. Later this attitude was to cause kings, presidents
and statesmen to marvel at his inspiring role on the world scene, and to
make him beloved by the masses of Southeast Asia.
He seemed to have been born with a passionate belief
in the worth and dignity of every human being. In Laos, in his last years,
Dr. Dooley would become angry when the people kow-towed before him on the
roads or in the villages. "Don't worship me or anyone! Worship God! You're
as good as I am! You're as good as anyone in the world!" he exploded at
Dooley took part, as a medical corpsman, in the evacuation
of North Vietnam, which he later called "Passage-to Freedom." In spite
of his horror at the condition of the refugees pouring in from the north
he expressed himself as being strangely content. He worked with characteristic
intensity for the ailing, exhausted, often apathetic people, describing
himself in letters home as "not displeased with MY lot."
"I have to get it across to our sailors that these
people are not a stinking mass of humanity, but a great people, distressed."
He became so drawn to these suffering and desperately needy ones that all
of his thought, his time, and his strength was dedicated to doing what
he could for them. "It is so pitiful," he wrote, in speaking of their patience
and valor; "you want to weep; they are so tender and fine and noble that
you feel humble before these refugees."
Dr. Dooley was very unpopular among the Americans
of Vientiane. They were critical of his ego, described as mountainous,
his fanatical zeal, his flair for personal publicity. He was described
as hyperthyroid by those who worked with him for he drove them without
mercy in the hospital in Vang Vieng, set up for treating the natives. Brilliant
in the intellectual sense, full of a charm which he could turn on and off
at will, he had no patience with mediocrity, with unenlightened plodding.
A tremendous driving desire to get things done made him use any situation
or any person without compunction if such use furthered the cause for which
he worked -- the bettering of the lot of the people of Vietnam and later
Laos. When with his white friends and co-workers he was domineering, impatient
and thoughtless a good deal of the time.
There were two Tom Dooleys, one entirely different
from the other. The first was the one seen on the lecture platform, dramatic,
charming, intense and magnetic. The other was the quiet, dedicated doctor
who never spared himself in working for his patients. He felt that the
hands that healed had to be "my hands" just as the pain or wound or sickness
he treated was "my (the patient's) pain." Both were real; neither was an
abstraction. His philosophy was a personal one -- individual to individual.
He said, ". . . . .we are learning that there is
an intense and vivid joy that comes from serving others. The brotherhood
of man transcends the sovereignty of nations, and service to humanity is
the best work of life."
Condensed from AND PROMISED TO KEEP
by Agnes Wise Dooley
VIGNETTE # 4: PIER LUIGI NERVI
A striking development in the field of architecture
is the use of reinforced concrete to replace steel for the construction
of large buildings. A relatively new refinement of the use of concrete,
in which cement mortar is sprayed on layers of fine steel mesh to form
exceedingly strong and thin sheets (ferro-cemento) was invented by Pier
In the past decade he has radically influenced the
appearance of Italian architecture, and his structural ideas have been
intently studied by builders all over the world.
For years, steel was almost invariably used for the
skeletons of large buildings, but now reinforced concrete, a far more versatile
and malleable material, is challenging the tyranny of the right angle.
Curves are replacing rectangular lines in architectural designs, but in
the absence of taste and the discipline of dignity and sound structure,
the new and freer forms could very well lead to architectural chaos.
Nervi has used concrete to produce curvilinear buildings
that are sound structurally, suited to their purpose, and "ageless" in
their profound air of classic elegance. He regards himself as an engineer
of construction; his main interest is the fundamental laws of stress, geometry,
and economy in the use of materials.
Nonetheless he produces structures that are not only
enchanting to the eye, but authoritative in the sense that one cannot imagine
their being altered in the slightest degree without damage to their intrinsic
grace of proportion. Nearly all these structures are curvilinear, if not
circular, and most of them employ the dome, transmuted by Nervi into lacy
designs of astounding grace and breathtaking span.
Nowhere in his work does concrete seem unwieldy or
massive, and nowhere is a concrete beam or arch an iota heavier than it
needs to be in order to carry the stress imposed on it. His best edifices
have the light structural daring and great tensile strength of a spider
In the presence of Nervi's buildings one is aware
that a master of the mathematics of construction has expressed in them
the poise that arises from attacking an object with exactly the right amount
of power. They have qualities of serenity and beauty and are ornamental
in themselves, because of the balance of the simple elements that compose
His philosophy is that architecture is basically
a matter of engineering, and that great architecture has always been a
triumph of that science, that beauty comes not from decoration but from
structural coherence. The problems that interest him can be met with only
in large edifices. He has concentrated on producing public buildings which
are monumental and convey a feeling of power and dignity. They may force
a reappraisal of architectural aims, since they proclaim the awesome thesis
that a great edifice can be a thing of beauty and need not be ashamed of
being just that. In any building, aesthetic perfection derives from technical
Not all these ideas are new in the thinking of contemporary
architects, it is Nervi's application of them that is new and highly
individual. As theories, they reflect the ideal of the Puritan virtues
of economy and sound construction. His buildings have been erected on the
basis of competitive bids, often with plans that seemed economically impractical
until the finished product proved him right.
Nervi is by nature a puritan, and this expresses
itself in his habits of life as well as in his architecture. He does not
smoke, and he drinks wine frugally with his meals, which are light ones.
His appearance and his talk are simple and unassuming; he thinks deeply
before expressing himself in words. His words are few, unadorned, and to
the point, giving the impression of a mind too preoccupied with creative
ideas to indulge in needless dialogue.
Nevertheless there is no severity about him; he is
warm and cordial and his great reputation has given him warm professional
acquaintance with architects all over the world. He has few close friends,
and leads almost no social life; his preoccupation with his work does not
permit it, and he prefers things that way.
He has been happily married for thirty-five years
and his wife is an intelligent North Italian woman, with whom he discusses
everything. They have four sons and several grandchildren; three of his
sons are architects and engineers with the firm, and the fourth a physician.
Their home is an apartment in the same building as
his office, which they have occupied for twenty-seven years. It is furnished
simply and comfortably without pretensions of any self-conscious style.
The first thing one notices is a renaissance crucifix, and the pictures
on the walls are of saints and Madonnas. They are religious, although he
is more concerned with the spirit of Christianity than with its forms.
Contemporary literature holds little or no interest
for him; his taste runs to poetry and history. A fine record-player and
a large collection of recordings testify to his liking for music. He is
a fervent devotee of music, and his favorite composer is Richard Wagner.
This may seem incongruous in a man who is in other aspects classically
Italian and dedicated to technology, but Wagner was one of the greatest
engineers the art of music has ever produced, and the long eloquent spans
of "Tristan" might easily be thought of as the musical equivalent of Nervi's
His formidable reputation came late in his life;
it started in 1949 with his erection of the Turbin Exhibition Hall, the
first building in the world to use Ferro-cemento and the first time he
aimed at conscious architectural elegance as well as functional engineering.
As usual, he won the contract by under-bidding his competitors; it took
eight months to build, and when it was finished architects everywhere acclaimed
it as a remarkable feat.
It demonstrates the ultimate flexibility and strength
under stress that concrete is capable of, and has the sort of beauty derived
from exactly calculated tensions and the sweep of material pushed to its
maximum elasticity and delicacy. His building designs are dictated both
by functional and aesthetic considerations. Some of them are, the UNESCO
auditorium in Paris, the Pirelli sky-scraper in Milan and the Pallazzetto
dello Sport in Rome.
Condensed from the NEW YORKER 1960
VIGNETTE # 5: KARL MARX
Karl Marx was born in Trier, Germany, in 1818. His
family, a prosperous one of Jewish origins, became Christians before his
birth. Marx the man, was dark-skinned with deep-set, flashing eyes. He
was stocky in build, powerful, and somewhat formidable, with complete disregard
for his appearance which was always untidy, and for the conditions under
which he lived, which were usually slovenly. But within this outwardly
careless man was a scholarly and meticulous mind which surprised and delighted
many of those who took the time to converse with him.
Marx's public personality was rebellious and impatient,
and although he was capable of great love and friendship as well as personal
sacrifice, these were displayed only in the narrow circles of his family
and his immediate political following. He was a German whose English speech
was always guttural, even after twenty years of practice, but his mind
was occupied with something other than language -- the changing economic
structure of Europe and the sad plight of the working classes. He had no
pride of race or nationality, but considered himself a European. He was
a radical democrat who had no respect for the will of the unenlightened
majorities, a fierce individualist who would become apoplectic at the notion
of party discipline or of loyalty to anything but his own creative insights.
He had a passionate sense of social injustice which burns in everything
he wrote. Absolutely incorruptible, he was sustained by a sense of his
own moral righteousness,
Just before the birth of Karl Marx the isolated markets
of the Middle ages had begun to lock fingers under the impetus of exploration
and political unification, and a new commercial world was being born. The
age of lords and vassals was part of the past, there was an aristocracy
of merchants coming into being, and economic life was changing its form.
The feudal lord fought the merchant, the guild master despised the young
capitalist, and no one at all considered the factory hand, the worker --
except Karl Marx and his ilk.
He was a furious man, a man fired with a passionate
ideal to eliminate the social inequalities, the poverty, and the injustices
of his time. Had Marx not lived, there would have been other socialists
and other prophets of a new society, for "Marxist" ideas belong in the
great line of economic viewpoints which have successively clarified, illuminated,
and interpreted the world for us, and like other great ideas appearing
in the forward movement of humanity, they are not without flaw nor devoid
Marx considered himself an economist and a philosopher
and as such predicted that capitalism must inevitably collapse, and on
that "scientific" prognostication communism has built its edifice. Misunderstood
by his contemporaries, Marx and his family passed their lives in the most
miserable poverty, two of his five children dying from the results of malnutrition.
At times he could not go out to seek work because his coat and even his
shoes had been pawned, but he never gave up the fight.
In his final days at the age of sixty-five, weary
to death of the bickering of the working-class movement and of his own
apparent failure, he remarked to his close friend, Engel, "I am not a Marxist."
He died on a March afternoon, having never thought of a government formed
upon his ideas, and having never looked in the direction of Russia.
Summarized from THE WORLDLY PHILOSOPHERS, by Robert
and MARX AND THE MARXISTS, by Sidney Hook
VIGNETTE # 6: GEORGE BERNARD SHAW
Bernard Shaw's Hartfordshire house, a commonplace,
tasteless, late Victorian building, was a working place, where he could
be quiet, and see his friends when so disposed, and where no one in the
village took any interest in him. There he lived without identifying himself
with his surroundings.
Detachment was the secret not only of his character,
but of his plays. He did not live in that dull house, except for bodily
necessities; likewise, he attached himself to no possessions, not even
to his plays, for they are the works of a completely detached mind. He
lived in his imagination. All he did was an expression of this detached
being; his political and social activities, no less than his plays, all
expressed a disinterested and free mind. It is not that he stood outside
his plays and their characters. The true artist works from within himself:
he starts with vision not with the outer object. He does not create a semblance
of the world, but transfigures it. Instead of assembling what exists outside
himself, finding in it pattern or meaning, he perceives an inner reality
and presents it in the form of the world. To do this the artist must be
detached, not involving himself in his surroundings or the material of
his art, or even in himself.
With Shaw there was not merely the mask -- the deliberately
created false personality, the public figure. He was as detached from his
mask as he was from the rest of his surroundings. He never for one instant
supposed that the mask was the man. Neither should we suppose that the
mask was the plays; for his work was no mask -- it was the truth.
This detachment gave him throughout his life an insubstantial
quality, of which everyone who knew him was conscious. It made him appear
contradictory and unpredictable. He could not be pinned down or hurt, or
damaged by even the fiercest attack or opposition, and appeared to elude
capture even in an argument. In a sense he was never wholly there. Precise,
detailed, and accurate as he proved to be in his public debates on the
platform or in the press, he was never caught out. This often caused great
annoyance. The conclusion is that the real Shaw was not the socialist,
the egalitarian, the spelling reformer, nor the dramatist. He was an instrument,
and his was an impersonal life.
This conscious non-identification, except with the
mysterious self outside himself, was Shaw's outstanding characteristic,
and as a dramatist puts him in a class by himself..... It explains why
he was able to get his plays listened to -- witness his great fortune --
without accommodating himself to the taste or demands of the time. On no
account would he disguise nor diminish the novelty of the truth that was
in him. It was this essential disinterestedness that got him a hearing,
despite the annoyance he aroused, for he was so clearly single-minded.
Enemies called it egotism, but it was his singularity to be devoid of egotism:
the egotist was the unreal mask. No one who looks upon himself as
an instrument for what is beyond himself can be an egotist. He can only
be a humble servant, as Shaw declared himself to be, "an amanuensis or
an organ blower," he said. He was never anybody's man but a hand of that
which he had no objection to being called Providence, or God. That is what
put him at loggerheads with the established professionals of his day in
science, philosophy, art and politics, even in the theatre, though less
there than anywhere, and made his work unsettling for everyone, for what
he said could not be laughed away, even amidst the laughter he aroused.
Often he outraged people, but he was never offensive. "I am always shocked
by what I write," he said in his old age. A Catholic critic has written
of the artist as one who is guilty of rivalry with God, but to Shaw the
artist was man as God would have him, obedient to the creative will.
A GUIDE TO THE PLAYS OF BERNARD SHAW
by C. B. Purdon c.1963 Thomas Y. Crowell Co,
His major plays include:
THE DEVIL'S DISCIPLE written in 1896
CAESER AND CLEOPATRA " " 1899
CAPTAIN BRASSBOUND'S CONVERSION 1899
MAN AND SUPERMAN published 1903
MAJOR BARBARA produced 1905
THE DOCTOR'S DILEMMA " 1906
ANDROCLES AND THE LION " 1911
PYGMALION " 1912
HEARTBREAK HOUSE " 1920
BACK TO METHUSELAH " 1924
SAINT JOAN " 1924
COLUMBIA VIKING ENCYCLOPEDIA, 1960 edition
This early spate of work included some of the best
music criticism ever written, by fairly general consent of the musical
world; some of the best drama criticism ever written (absolutely the best
theatrical criticism ever written in English); THE QUINTESSENCE OF IBSENISM,
a pioneer book in its field; the editing of the classic FABIAN ESSAYS,
to which he contributed two of the eight essays; activity as one of the
chief proponents and founders of the Labour Party; and the composition
of his first seven plays, two of which, YOU NEVER CAN TELL and CANDIDA,
will, I believe, still be revived five hundred years from now to a chorus
of criticism still explaining -- quite logically -- why they ought to be
Shaw did all these things, and continued to
live at this prodigious pace of work of all kinds for about another forty
years, when he slowed down to a normal, full-time writer's life. What is
also patent -- though often prejudicedly ignored -- is that, along with
all these labors, he was consistently generous with time and money, considerate,
Shaw is a talkative busy body, a nagging preacher,
a would-be encyclopedist; he has a faint smell of soap and water, of Jaeger
woolens, of Right Living..... One can, if one chooses (which is the root
of the matter), stop there. Others, myself included, see these facts as
the mortal manifestations of a demi-urge, a titanic being so huge, so insistent,
so demonic, that he frequently overrode human practices of work and dedication.
The basic discomfort for us with Shaw is not the usual pathos of genius,
that he was ahead of his time, but that he seems to have come from another
planet: that he viewed the human race with incisive perception but a bit
clinically; that, in addition and in contrast to his myriad immediate activities,
he had a disquieting long-range historical view.
But what is evident..... is the unleashing of a multitude
of forces, the birth of a heroic figure who worked steadily, but who also
soared and gamboled, who saw life as a totally consuming, inescapably amusing
but nevertheless holy game. Even on this side of our century's cataclysms,
we can feel the force of his being; we can feel that, if our connection
with his views and art is no longer completely contiguous, yet the fact
that such a man really existed is a subtle source of strength.
The link between genius and extraordinary energy
has never been more notable than in his case.
From a review of BECOMING BERNARD SHAW in THE NEW
REPUBLIC magazine, 11-27-1965
MANASAPUTRAS - The 'Sons of Mind': a compound of
manas - the adjectival form of manas - mind, and putra -
son. The Manasaputras are those Dhyan-Chohans whose work is to awaken the
thinking power of man. They entered into the undeveloped minds of humans
of the Third Root-Race of the Fourth Round, in order to awaken the unevolved
powers of self-consciousness and of mind.